Barbarossa was settled in 2222 by the widow of a retired Fleet Commander Robin Fairchild. Initially told about the planet by her husband after his long tours through space, eventually they formed a plan to retire on the secluded planet once Commander Fairchild's final tour was finished. But Captain Fairchild never made it back. It is believed his vessel suffered a catastrophic failure with their Cherenkov Drive, and the ship was presumably destroyed, as no trace of the vessel was ever found. Determined to live out her late husband's dream, Patricia Fairchild and the families of other crew lost aboard Captain Fairchild's ship who were almost all without breadwinners for their families, decided to relocate to Barbarossa and become the planet's first settlers to begin anew.
One of the main incentives to settle on Barbarossa is the staggering lack of pathogens and harmful microbes. It is considered perfectly safe to drink from most of the planet's untreated waters, as almost all of them appear to be devoid of any harmful pathogens that would be present on other planets. The reason as to why this is, Fleet researchers have yet to deduce.
Barbarossa gradually became known through word of mouth, as rumors inevitably spread about the clean waters that flowed on an otherwise unoccupied planet, save for a community of ex-military families whose initial settlement began to grow exponentially.
Population continued to grow, with a planetary government being established in 2242 to administrate the new settlements cropping up around Barbarossa. Having a history of positive relations with the Federation, five years later the planet was indicted into the United Citizens' Federation after their population broke 2.2 million in the 2267 census.
Following the outbreak of the First Bug War the next year, the Wolf 424 System was targeted by the Arachnids. In the summer of 2270, Arachnids made landfall on the planet's southern hemisphere. Massive evacuation efforts were undertaken as the Federation had prepared for such an event; however approximately 2,400 civilians were killed along with 4,400 Mobile Infantry as the Arachnids slaughtered the denizens of Barbarossa without discrimination. For decades, the Federation has maintained its grip on a heavily defended region of Barbarossa known as the Clint Range. Sometimes, the 1,500 km by 1,700 km of mountainous terrain that made up Clint Range was the only territory under complete control by the UCF. Throughout the duration of the Bug Wars, the Clint Range has always been an unchanging strong point on the planet; even when it was swarming with Arachnids and in danger of being compromised. During the Civil War, Barbarossa belonged to Sanctuary, who maintained the tradition of continually clinging to the Clint Range, and persisting against Arachnids that still call Barbarossa 'home.' Following the war's end, Barbarossa has been reintegrated into the Federation, with the newly unified regiments of Mobile Infantry and Fleet to now tackle the Arachnid threat that encapsulates the planet.